Concept of Attosecond-to-picosecond spectroscopy

Attosecond-to-picosecond spectroscopy

In general, it is too fast to electronically measure the dynamics on the as-to-fs time scale. Most measurements are performed by employing a sequence of ultrashort light pulses to initiate a process and record its dynamics. Both the width of the light pulses and dynamics that is to be measured has to be on the same scale.

Light sources:

Titanium-sapphire laser

Titanium-sapphire lasers are basically lasers that can be tuned and that emit red and near-infrared light (700 nm – 1100 nm). Ti-sapphire laser oscillators use Ti doped-sapphire crystals as the gain medium and Kerr-lens mode-locking to receive a sub-picosecond light pulse. In general, the Ti: sapphire oscillator pulses that are used consist of nJ energy and repetition rates of 70-100 MHz. Chirped pulse amplification through regenerative amplification is used in order to achieve higher pulses energies. To enhance, the laser pulses from the Ti: sapphire oscillator must first be timed to avoid damage to the optics and then injected into the cavity of the second laser where the pulses are amplified at a low repetition rate. In addition, we can further amplify the regeneratively amplified pulses in a multi-pass amplifier. Following amplification, the pulses the compressed again to the pulse widths similar to the original pulse widths. The design research optics loveland co present in the market produces laser optics windows that are manufacture at concavo convex lens factory.

Dye laser:

A dye laser is a four-stage laser that uses an organic dye as the gain medium. Pumped by a laser with a certain wavelength, different dye lasers can emit beams with different wavelengths due to the different dye types you use. Most often, the ring laser is used in a dye laser system. Also, diffraction elements including prims or diffraction grating are usually incorporated in the cavity. Only the light which is in a very narrow frequency range is allowed to resonate in the cavity and be emitted as laser emission. The wide tunability range, high output power, and pulsed or CW operation make dye lasers particularly useful in many physical and chemical studies.

Fiber laser:

Usually, a laser diode is used to generate a fiber laser. The laser diode then combines the light into a fiber where it will be confined. With the help of doped fiber, different wavelengths can be achieved. The pump light from the laser diode will excite a state in the doped fiber which can then drop into energy allowing a specific wavelength to be emitted.